The following bibliography focuses on literature associated with the destructive or non-destructive analysis of historical paper, non-destructive ultrasonic testing of paper, and research on the role of gelatin and alum in paper permanence.

Analysis of Historical Papers, Destructive
(Some citations include non-destructive analyses)

Barrett, T. 1996. “Coded Messages in Historical Handmade Papers.” In Postprints, International Association of Paper Historians Annual Congress, Leipzig, 30 Aug.–5 Sept. 1996, 1–5.

Barrett, T., and C. Mosier. “The Role of Gelatin in Paper Permanence.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 34, no. 3 (1995): 173–86.

Barrett, T. “Evaluating the Effect of Gelatin Sizing with Regard to the Permanence of Paper.” In Conference papers Manchester, 1992, edited by S. Fairbrass, 228–33. London: Institute of Paper Conservation, 1992.

——— “Early European Papers, Contemporary Conservation Papers: A Report on Research Undertaken from Fall 1984 through Fall 1987.” The Paper Conservator 13, no. 1 (1989): 1–108.

Erhardt, David, and Charles S. Tumosa. “Chemical Degradation of Cellulose in Paper over 500 Years.” Restaurator 26, no. 3 (2005): 151–58.

Henniges, Ute, Thomas Prohaska, Gerhard Banik, and Antje Potthast. “A Fluorescence Labeling Approach to Assess the Deterioration State of Aged Papers.” Cellulose 13, no. 4 (2006): 421–28. doi: 10.1007/s10570-005-9030-3.

W. J. Barrow Research Laboratory. Physical and Chemical Properties of Book Papers, 1507–1949. Permanence/Durability of the Book 7. Richmond: W. J. Barrow Research Laboratory, 1974.

Waterhouse, J. F., and T. Barrett. “The Aging Characteristics of European Handmade Papers: 1400–1800.” TAPPI Journal 74, no. 10 (1991): 207–12.

Analysis of Historical Papers, Nondestructive

Barrett, T., J. Waterhouse, and P. Lang. “Non-destructive Measurement of Gelatin and Calcium Content of European Book Papers: 1400–1800.” In Erice Book Conservation Conference Postprints, 604–24. Sicily, Italy: Erice Book Conservation Conference, 2000.

Cahill, T. A., B. H. Kusko, R. A. Eldred, and R. N. Schwab. “Gutenberg's Inks and Papers: Non-destructive Compositional Analyses by Proton Milliprobe.” Archaeometry 26, no. 1 (1984): 3–14. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4754.1984.tb00312.x.

Cain, C. Eugene, and Victor T. Kalasinsky. “Characterization of Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Paper Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Thin-Layer Chromatography.” In Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art: Proceedings of the Seminar, 7–9 September 1983, edited by Pamela England and Lambertus Zelst, 55–58. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1985.

Cséfalvayová, Linda, Matija Strlič, and Harri Karjalainen. “Quantitative NIR Chemical Imaging in Heritage Science” Analytical Chemistry 83, no. 13 (2011): 5101–06. doi: 10.1021/ac200986p.

Doering, T., Peter Fischer, Gerhard Banik, Ulrike Binder, and Joachim Liers. “An Approach to Evaluate the Condition of Paper by a Non-destructive Analytical Method.” In Advances in Printing Science and Technology, vol. 27, edited by J. A. Bristow, 27–39. Leatherhead, UK: Pira International, 2001.

Dussubieux, Laure, Sarah Eleni Pinchin, Jia-sun Tsang, and Charles S. Tumosa. “Non-destructive Elemental Analysis: Reliability of a Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Museum Applications.” In 14th Triennial Meeting, The Hague, 12–16 September 2005: Preprints (ICOM Committee for Conservation), edited by Isabelle Verger, 766–73. London: James & James, Ltd., 2005.

Janssens, K. A. “Survey of the Recent Use of X-ray Beam Methods for Non-destructive Investigations in the Cultural Heritage Sector.” In Cultural Heritage Conservation and Environmental Impact Assessment by Non-destructive Testing and Micro-analysis, edited by Rene van Grieken and Koen H.A. Janssens, 265–308. London: A. A. Belkema, 2005.

Lang, P. L., J. Cook, B. Fuller, M. Scott, C. S. Telles, and T. Barrett. “Characterization of Historic Papers Using Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy.” Applied Spectroscopy 52, no. 5 (1998): 713–16. doi:10.1366/0003702981944120.

Mantler, M., and M. Schreiner. “X-ray Analysis of Objects of Art and Archeology.” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 247, no. 3 (2001): 635–44. doi:10.1023/A:1010671619353.

McCrady, Ellen. “Carbonate Content of Certain Archival Paper.” Alkaline Paper Advocate 1, no. 3 (1988): 21–22.

Merlani, A. L., M. Missori, P. F. Munafò, M. Righini, S. Selci, M. S. Storace. “Optical Spectroscopy Results on the Discoloration of Paper Samples.” In Proceedings of the 26th Congress of the International Association of Paper Historians: Paper as a Medium of Cultural Heritage, edited R. Graziaplena, 153. Rome: Istituto Centrale per la Patologia del Libro, 2004.

Missori, M., M. Righini, M. S. Storace, A. Congiu Castellano, and S. Selci. “Optical Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Study of Degradation Processes in Ancient and Modern Papers.” In Proceedings of the MIP Meeting. Rome, 2005.

Missori, M., M. Righini, M. S. Storace, and A. Congiu Castellano. “The Effect of Artificial Aging and Sizing on Discoloration of Paper Studied by UV-Vis-NIR Spectroscopy in Comparison to Ancient Paper.” In Proceedings of the Conference “Paper Durability and Writing,” edited by S. Selci, 47. Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2004.

Missori, Mauro, Marcofabio Righini, and Stefano Selci. “Optical Reflectance Spectroscopy of Ancient Papers with Discoloration or Foxing.” Optics Communications 231 (2004): 99–106. doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2003.12.034.

Missori, Mauro, Marcofabio Righini, and Anne-Laurence Dupont. 2006. “Gelatin Sizing and Discoloration: A Comparative Study between Optical Spectra Obtained from Ancient and Artificially Aged Modern Papers.” Optics Communications 263 (2006): 289–94. doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2006.02.004.

Moioli, P., and Claudio Seccaroni. “Analysis of Art Objects Using a Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer.” X-ray Spectrometry 29, no. 1 (2000): 48-52. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4539(200001/02)29:1<48::AID-XRS404>3.0.CO;2-H.

Noda, Yasuko, and Susumu Shimoyama. “Non-destructive Analysis of Ukiyo-e, Traditional Japanese Woodblock Prints, Using a Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer.” Dyes in History and Archaeology: Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting 18 (1999): 73–86.

Ormsby, M., T. Barrett, and B. Hojjati. “Investigations of Non-destructive Methods for the Estimation of Gelatin Content in Paper.” In AIC Book and Paper Group Annual. MS submitted 1 September 2005, forthcoming.

Trafela, Tanja, Matija Strlič, Jana Kolar, Dirk A. Lichtblau, Manfred Anders, Danijela Pucko Mencigar, and Boris Pihlar. “Nondestructive Analysis and Dating of Historical Paper Based on IR Spectroscopy and Chemometric Data Evaluation.” Analytical Chemistry 79, no.16 (2007): 6319–23. doi: 10.1021/ac070392t.

Strlič, Matija, Linda Cséfalvayová, Jana Kolar, Eva Menart, Joanna Kosek, Caroline Barry, Catherine Higgitt, and May Cassar. “Non-destructive Characterisation of Iron Gall Ink Drawings: Not Such a Galling Problem.” Talanta 81 (2010): 412–17. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2009.12.017.

Tschudin, Peter F. “Non-destructive Optical Investigation of Paper.” In Paper as a Medium of Cultural Heritage: Archaeology and Conservation: Rome-Verona, August 30th–September 6th 2002, edited by Rosella Graziaplena, 135–41. Rome: Instituto centrale per la patologia del libro, 2004.

van Grieken, René, and Koen H. A. Janssens, eds. Cultural Heritage Conservation and Enviromental Impact Assessment by Non-destructive Testing and Micro-analysis. Leiden: A. A. Balkema, 2005.

Vives, Gilbert, Josep Ma, Joan Ramon Mendo Escoda, Rogelio Areal Guerra, and Luís Alberto Hernández. “A Method for the Non-Destructive Analysis of Paper Based on Reflectance and Viscosity.” Restaurator 22, no. 4 (2001): 187–207. doi:10.1515/REST.2001.187.

Waterhouse, John F. Monitoring the Aging of Paper. IPC Technical Paper Series. Appleton, WI: Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1988. Accessed July 2, 2011.

Waterhouse, John F. 1990. “Monitoring the Aging of Paper.” In Proceedings of the 1988 TAPPI Preservation Symposium, edited by P. Luner. Atlanta: TAPPI Press, 1990.

Nondestructive Ultrasonic Analysis of Machine-Made Paper

Baum, Gary A., and Charles C. Haberger. On-Line Estimates of Strength. IPC Technical Paper Series. Appleton, WI: Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1986. Accessed July 21, 2011.

Chase, L., J. Goss, and L. Anderson. “On-Line Sensor for Measuring Strength Properties.” TAPPI Journal 72, no. 12 (1989): 89–97.

Habeger, C. C., and G. A. Baum. “On-Line Measurement of Paper Mechanical Properties.” TAPPI Journal 69, no. 6 (1986): 106.

Jackson, M., and G. Gavelin. “The Strength Characterization of Kraft Paper by Means of Sonic Pulse Velocity Measurements.” Svensk Papperstid 70, no. 3 (1967): 63.

Kazhis, R. Y., A. V. Ragauskas, Y. Y. Stashkevishyus, V. V. Sakalauskas, and K. Y. Bernatonis. “Ultrasonic Apparatus for Measurement of Paper Strength.” Pribory Sistemy Upravleniya 6 (1997): 33.

Lantz, K. G., and L. M. Chase. “On-Line Measurement and Control of Strength Properties.” TAPPI Journal 71, no. 2 (1988): 75.

Lu, M. T. “On-Line Measurement of Strength Characteristics of a Moving Sheet.” TAPPI 58, no. 6 (1975): 80.

Gelatin and/or Alum in Paper

Baker, W. “The Role of Gelatin in Paper Permanence, Part II, Phase One: Gelatin as a Relative Humidity Buffer.” Unpublished senior-research project, Preservation and Conservation Studies, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Texas at Austin, 1997. Accessed December 22, 2011.

Banik, Gerhard, Gesa Kolbe, and Jan Wouters. “Analytical Procedures to Evaluate Conservation Treatments of Iron Gall Ink Corrosion.” In La conservation à l'ère du numérique: actes des quatrièmes journées internationales d'études de l'ARSAG, Paris, 27–30 Mai 2002, 205–17. Paris: ARSAG, 2002.

Barrett, T., and C. Mosier. “A Review of Methods for the Identification of Sizing Agents in Paper.” In Conference Papers Manchester, 1992, edited by S. Fairbrass, 207–13. London: Institute of Paper Conservation, 1992.

Barrow, W. J. Manuscripts and Documents: Their Deterioration and Restoration. 2nd ed. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1972.

Baty, John, and Timothy Barrett. “Gelatin Size as a pH and Moisture Content Buffer in Paper.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 46, no. 2 (2007): 105–21.

Brückle, Irene. “Aspects of the Use of Alum in Historical Papermaking.” In Conference Papers Manchester, 1992, edited by S. Fairbrass, 201–6. London: Institute of Paper Conservation, 1992.

———. “The Role of Alum in Historical Papermaking.” Alkaline Paper Advocate 17, no. 4. (1993). Accessed July 2, 2011. Viewed July 21, 2011.

Dupont, Anne-Laurence. 2002. “The Role of Gelatine/Alum Sizing in the Degradation of Paper: A Study by Size Exclusion Chromatography in Lithium Chloride/N, N-dimehtlyacetamide Using Multiangle Light Scattering Detection.” In Works of Art on Paper, Books, Documents and Photographs: Techniques and Conservation, Contributions to the Baltimore Congress 2–6 Sept. 2002, 59–64. London: IIC, 2002.

———. “Gelatine Sizing of Paper and Its Impact on the Degradation of Cellulose During Aging: A Study Using Size-Exclusion Chromatography.” PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 2003.

Gallo, F, G. Pasquariello, and F. Rocchetti. “Biological Investigation on Sizings for Permanent Papers.” Restaurator 19, no. 2 (1998): 61–84.

Hendriks, K. B. “Permanence of Paper in Light of Six Centuries of Papermaking in Europe.” In Environment and Conservation of Writing, Images, and Sound: Proceedings of ARSAG's Second International Study Days, 16–20 May 1994, 131–37. Paris: ARSAG, 1994.

Inaba, M., and R. Sugisita. “Permanence of Washi (Japanese Paper).” In The Conservation of Far Eastern Art: Preprints of the Contributions to the Kyoto Congress, 19–23 September 1988, edited by J. Mills, 1–4. London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1988.

Kolar, J., M. Strlič, M. Budnar, J. Malesic, V.S. Selih, and J. Simcic. “Stabilization of Corrosive Iron-Gall Inks.” Acta Chimica Slovenia 50 (2003): 63–70.

Kolbe, G. “Gelatin in Historical Paper Production and as an Inhibiting Agent of Iron-Gall Ink Corrosion on Paper.” Restaurator 25, no. 1 (2004): 26–39.

Richardson, William D. The Current Significance of the Word ALUM. Chicago: Commonwealth Press, 1927.

Spitzmueller, P. “Selecting a Paper Re-sizing Agent and Its Concentration: A Look at Parchment Size and Photographic Gelatin.” In Manchester Conference Papers, 1992, edited by S. Fairbrass, 214–18. London: Institute of Paper Conservation, 1992.


Bowden, Derek J., and Peter Brimblecombe. “The Rate of Metal Catalyzed Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide in Collagen Surrogates.” Journal of Cultural Heritage 4, no. 2 (2003): 137–47. doi:10.1016/S1296-2074(03)00025-6.

Burdygina, G. I., I. M. Fridman, P. V. Kozlov, and V. A. Kargin. “Effects of Orientation on Structural Transitions in Gelatin in Wide Temperature Interval.” Vysokomolekuliarnye Soedineniia A 11 (1969): 912–19.

Calhoun, J. M., and D. A. Leister. “Effect of Gelatin Layers on the Dimensional Stability of Photographic Film.” Photographic Science and Engineering 3, no. 1 (1959): 8–17.

Hill, Thomas T. “The Literature of Gelatin.” In Literature of Chemical Technology, 381–86. Advances in Chemistry Series. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 1978.

Johnson, J. S. “Accelerated Aging: Changes in Swelling and Melting Point of Photographic Gelatin.” In Eleventh Triennial Meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1–6 Sept. 1996, edited by J. Bridgland, 586–90. Paris: ICOM, 1996.

Kenchington, A. W., and A. G. Ward. “The Titration Curve of Gelatin.” Biochemical Journal 58, no. 2 (1954): 202–7.

Kolbe, G. “Gelatine.” PapierRestaurierung 2 (Supplement 2001): 41–56.

Martinelli, G., and L. Santucci. “Resistenza e stabilitá della carta. IX. Collatura con gelatina, alcol polivinilico e ossietilcellulosa; Venti anni dopo” (Resistance and stability of paper. Part 9. Sizing with gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol, and hydoroxyethylcellulose: Twenty years later). Bollettino dell'Istituto centrale per la patologia del libro “Alfonso Gallo” 37 (1981): 55–65.

Payne, H. F., and W. H. Gardner. “Permeability of Varnish Films.” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 29 (1937): 893–98.

Rao, K. S., and B. Das. “Varietal Differences in Gelatin, Egg Albumin, and Casein in Relation to Sorption-Desorption Hysteresis with Water.” Journal of Physical Chemistry 72 (1968): 1223–30.

Simms, E. M., and J. N. Blake. “The Swelling of Gelatine Films.” Nature 187 (1960): 998.

Turner, A., Jr. Mechanical Behavior of High Polymers. New York: Interscience, 1948.

Ueno, W., and I. Ono. “Creep of Gelatin.” Journal of the Society of Materials Science 12 (1963): 81–86.

Ward, A. G., and A. Courts. The Science and Technology of Gelatin. London: Academic Press, 1977.

Gelatin Removal during Aqueous Treatment

Freeman, Rachel. “Quantifying Gelatin Sizing Loss During Aqueous Conservation Treatments,” 1–9. Senior Specialization Project, Graduate Program in Art Conservation: Buffalo State College, May 2004.

Schaeffer, T. T. “A Semiquantitative Assay, Based on the TAPPI Method, for Monitoring Changes in Gelatin Content of Paper Due to Treatments.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 34, no. 2 (1995): 95–105.

Cite as: . “Bibliography.” Paper through Time: Nondestructive Analysis of 14th- through 19th-Century Papers. The University of Iowa. Last modified . .